This section underwent a complete rearrangement in 2004 and consists of five rooms on the ground floor of the palace; it represents an interesting collection of finds documenting the material culture of the territory of Lucca and its province. All artifacts are arranged in chronological order; the first room displays materials dating back to the 8th century B.C. coming from the settlements along the river Auser, and the finds from the cremation necropolis of the area of San Concordio in Lucca: vases that were originally half-buried and covered by a bowl surmounted by club-shaped cippi made of marble and serpentine. From the tomb of Pozzi in Seravezza (7th-6th century) come some bronze arms and a bucaro banquet set, testifying to the spreading of new trends and ideologies as well as to more frequent exchanges with the coastal area.
The three following showcases display materials from the site of San Rocchino, dating back to the 7th to the 5th century B.C. It is a little trading centre with a pile-dwelling settlement where high-quality artifacts were found: bucaros, Etruscan-Corinthian ceramics, Attic ceramics, Corinthian and Samian amphorae, documenting the presence along the Versilia coast of an important port where all kinds of wares were received and redistributed along the Thyrrenian trade routes.
Also exhibited is the precious funerary equipment of the tomb of Rio Ralletta (470 B.C.) with a wonderful Attic cratera decorated with red figures, plus golden earrings, stickpins, fibulae, harpy-shaped fabric appliques, a necklace with small pendants and two amber necklace beads.
In the second room, a collection of small votive bronzes from various places of worship of the Serchio valley. Then, findings from the 3rd century B.C.: the materials from the settlement of Romito di Pozzuolo, Etruscan coins, the funerary equipment of the tomb of Percna found in the Ponte a Moriano area, and the precious finds of the necropolis of Val di Vaiana, near Barga, consisting of fragments of an helmet, fibulae and belt studs, all made of bronze. In the same room are the reconstructions of four box-shaped tombs (3rd century B.C.) and precious tombs from the necropolis of Tereglio, Vado di Camaiore, Coreglia Antelminelli. The equipments consist of earthen jars, amber beads, fibulae, a braid-holder, rings, bracelets, arms and bucaro vases.
The following showcase displays finds from the Ligurian necropolis of Marlia Ponticello (1st century B.C,) with enchytrismos burials in amphorae.
The second part of the exhibition, arranged thematically, displays several ceramic findings and many architectural fragments from Roman-era public buildings, private houses and necropolis in Lucca and its territory.
Among the finds on display, the pedestal of a marble altar with ox skulls and festoons (1st century) from the forum area, and architectural finds, columns, cornices and capitals from the San Paolino area near the forum and the main roads of the city. The following room holds fragments of a clay pavement and of a mosaic pavement detached from the church of SS. Giovanni e Reparata and from Palazzo Gigli, a continuous frieze of seven architectural terracottas from the 1st century originally in Palazzo Boccella, and a single slab with the head of a Gorgon. In the following showcases, remains of tombs from the necropolis of San Ponziano and Roman-era ceramics.
The section ends with some findings of unknown origin, including a small marble urn of the Augustan age, fragments of a relief celebrating the decuriones and emperor Costans, a marble inscription on architrave mentioning the two magistri mercatores and a corniced stele, mutilated on top, bearing a poetic text (1st-2nd century A.D.). On the wall, an interesting 18th-century painting depicting an archaeological excavation in the Massaciuccoli area.